Top 150+ Civil QC Inspector Notes for Saudi Aramco Exam

  1. American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM C136 Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
  2. ASTM D422 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
  3. ASTM D1140 Standard Test Method for Amount of Material in Soils Finer than the No. 200 (75-um) Sieve
  4. ASTM D1556 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone Method
  5. ASTM D1557 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort 56,000 ft-lbf/ft³ (2,700 KN- M/M³)
  6. ASTM D2167 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Rubber Balloon Method
  7. ASTM D2487 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification SysteM
  8. ASTM D2937 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
  9. ASTM D4253 Standard Test Method for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
  10. ASTM D4254 Standard Test Method for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative

GENERAL NOTES FOR SAUDI ARAMCO TEST FOR CIVIL QA/QC INSPECTOR

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  1. ASTM D4318 Standard Test Method for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils
  2. ASTM D5777 Standard Guide for Using the Seismic Refraction Method for Subsurface Investigation
  3. ASTM D6938 Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
  4. ASTM D7380 Standard Test Method for Soil Compaction Determination at Shallow Depths Using 5-lb (2.3 kg) Dynamic Cone Penetrometer
  5. ASTM D7830/ Standard Test Method for In-Place Density ASTM D7830M (Unit Weight) and Water Content of Soil Using an Electromagnetic Soil Density Gauge
  6. Saudi Aramco Product Specifications
    A-970 Paving Asphalt – Penetration Grade
    A-973 Cutback Asphalt, MC-70
    A-974 Cutback Asphalt, MC-250
  7. Saudi Aramco Best Practice
    SABP-Q-001 Anchor Bolt Design and Installation
    SABP-Q-009 Pile Foundation Specifications and Bearing Capacities
    SABP-Q-010 Mix Design and Construction of Sulfur Extended
    Asphalt concrete.
  8. Industry Codes and Standards
    American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
    AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
    AASHTO M17 Standard Specification for Mineral Filler for Bituminous Paving Mixtures.
    AASHTO M156 Standard Specification for Requirements for Mixing Plants for Hot-Mixed, Hot-Laid Bituminous Pavement.
    AASHTO T49 Standard Method of Test for Penetration of Bituminous Materials
  9. American National Standards Institute
    ANSI A10.13 Construction and Demolition Operations – Steel
    Erection – Safety Requirements
    ASTM A307
    Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60,000 psi Tensile Strength
  10. IBC International Building Code
    Use of “Shall’s” and “Should’s”
    Throughout this Practice the word “shall” is used if the item is required by mandatory standard or code and the word “should” is used if the item is just recommended or a good practice.

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  1. A 3 mm (1/8 in) corrosion allowance is required on anchor bolts.
  2. Standard SAES-Q-005 requires the top of pedestals to be at least 150 mm above the finished paving surface.
  3. The minimum anchor bolt size is 20 mm (¾”) for most items per SAES-Q-005.
  4. Standard SAES-Q-005 requires the clear distance for anchor bolts or anchor bolt sleeves to the edge of the concrete shall be a minimum of 100 mm.
  5. Minimum Anchor Dimensions
    A. IF SLEEVES ARE USED:
    B. EMBEDMENT SHALL BE THE LARGER OF 12do or (hs + he’)
    C. INCREASE EDGE DISTANCE BY 0.5(ds – do)
    D. INCREASE SPACING BY (ds – do)
  6. Reinforcement Tensile Capacity and Development Length
  7. Hairpin Reinforcement Design and Details (Uncoated Bars
    SABP-Q-002 31 January 2005
    Spread Footings Design
  8. Saudi Aramco Standards
    Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards (SAES)
    SAES-A-113 Geotechnical Engineering Requirements
    SAES-A-114 Excavation and Backfill
    SAES-A-204 Preparation of Structural Calculations
    SAES-M-001 Structural Design Criteria for Non-Building
    Structures
    SAES-Q-001 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete
    SAES-Q-005 Concrete Foundations
  9. Foundations shall be founded on either undisturbed soil or compact fill and at least 600 mm below the existing or finished grade surface.
  10. The top of concrete pedestal shall be a minimum of 150 mm above finished grade for all columns supporting process equipments and pipe racks.
  1. The design concrete compressive strength of concrete shall be 27.6 MPa (4000 psi) at 28 days. (Ref. SAES-Q-005).
  2. The minimum safety factor against overturning load combinations which include wind forces shall be 1.5
  3. The minimum safety factor against sliding for service loads other than earthquake shall be 1.5.
  4. safety factor against sliding for cast-in-place foundations shall be 0.40
  5. The minimum thickness of a soil bearing footing shall be 12 inches.
    f’c = 4,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi
    Materials System Specification
    09-SAMSS-088
  6. Aggregates for Concrete
    Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure
    SAEP-302 Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver Of a
    Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
    ASTM C33 Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates
    ASTM C114 Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of
    Hydraulic Cement
  7. British Standards Institution
    BS 812 : Part 118 Methods for Determination of Sulphate Content
  8. A minimum stockpile of 500 m³ of each aggregate size shall be committed by the suppliers and accepted and at a frequency of at least one sample per 200 m³ of aggregate to be shipped, but not less than one sample per month.
  9. Manufactured sand shall be washed prior to batching with water that contains no more than 3500 parts per million (ppm) of total dissolved solids (TDS).
  10. Maximum Allowable, % by Weight of Aggregates
    Coarse Fine Frequency of Test
    Clay Lumps & Friable Particles 5.0 3.0 Monthly
    Gradation & Materials finer than 5.0 5.0 Weekly
    No. 200 Sieve
    Raw 1 & 2 Combined 6 6.0
    Abrasion (Los Angeles) 40 NA Monthly
    Water Absorption 2.5* Monthly
    Acid Soluble Chlorides as Cl 0.03 0.06 BI-Monthly (ASTM C114)
    Acid Soluble Sulfates as SO3 0.40 0.40 Bi-Monthly
    (ASTM C114 or BS 812 : Part 118)
    Magnesium Sulfates Soundness 25 25 Bi-Monthly

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  1. Total dissolved solids in the washing water shall not exceed 3500 ppm and chlorides shall not exceed 1000 ppm.
    09-SAMSS-097 8 July 2006
    Ready-Mixed Portland Cement Concrete
  2. American Concrete Institute
    ACI 207.3R Practice for Evaluation of Concrete in existing
    Massive Structure for Services Conditions
    ACI 211.1 Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavy weight, and Mass Concrete
    ACI 214R Evaluation of Strength Test Results of Concrete
    ACI 304R Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting and Placing Concrete
    ACI 318M Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
  3. American Society for Testing and Materials
    ASTM C39 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
    ASTM C94 – 04 Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete
    ASTM C114 Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement
    ASTM C150 Standard Specification for Portland Cement
    ASTM C494 Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete
    ASTM C685 Standard Specification for Concrete Made by Volumetric Batching and Continuous Mixing
    ASTM C1152 Standard Test Method for Acid-Soluble Chloride in Mortar and Concrete
    ASTM C1240 Standard Specification for Silica Fume Used in Cementitious Mixtures
  4. British Standard
    BS 1881 Part 124 Methods for Analysis of Hardened Concrete
  5. Saudi Arabian Standards Organization
    SASO SSA 143 Portland Cement, Ordinary and Rapid-Hardening
  6. The maximum acid soluble chloride ions and sulfates as SO3 in concrete shall not exceed 0.25% and 4% (by weight of cement) respectively, when tested in accordance with ASTM C1152 or BS 1881 Part 124 or equivalent.
  7. The cement content and the water cement ratio (W/C) for structural & non-structural concrete shall be as indicated in Table A of this standard.
  8. Cement Content and W/C Ratio for Concrete
    Item Structural Concrete Non-structural Concrete
    Cement Content
    Kilogram/Cubic Meter (Kg/M3) Max. 370 Min. 350 Max.
  • Min. 250
    W/C Ratio 0.4 – 0.6 –
    28-Days Design
    Compressive Strength (ASTM C39) – 4000 psi
    (28 MPA) – 2000 psi
    (14 MPA)
    Precast & Prestressed
    Concete & Water Retaining Structures
    Cement Content
    Kilogram/Cubic Meter (Kg/M3) No Max. Min. 370
    W/C Ratio 0.4 –
    28-Days Design
    Compressive Strength (ASTM C39) – 5000 psi
    (35 MPa)
  1. Complete concrete mix design data shall be submitted to the Purchaser for approval at least 30 days prior to proposed use.
  2. Ordinary Portland Cement (Type I) shall be in accordance with SSA 143 and the optional chemical requirements of ASTM C150, Table 2.
  3. Type V sulfate resistant Portland cement shall be in accordance with ASTM C150, including the optional chemical requirements of Table 2 and the optional physical requirements of Table 4.
  4. Silica fume shall be in accordance with ASTM C1240. Silica fume, when used as a mineral additive, it shall not be less than 7% by weight of cement as replacement and it shall not exceed 10% by weight of cement.
  5. Aggregate shall conform to 09-SAMSS-088 “Aggregates for Concrete”.
  6. Acceptance Criteria for Mixing Water
    Test Frequency of Test Max. Min.
    TDS Weekly 500 ppm N/A
    pH Weekly 8.0 6.0
  7. High range water reducers (Superplasticizers) type F or G only, conforming to ASTM C494, can be used, when necessary to achieve and maintain the desired workability.
  8. Calcium chloride or admixtures containing chloride salts are not permitted and shall not be used.
  9. When concrete pumps are used, the slump shall be determined at the discharge point of the concrete placement hose.
  10. Volume batching shall not be allowed.
  1. Wash water shall not be used as mixing water.
  2. Plant scales shall be calibrated no less than three times a year and shall be certified as conforming to ASTM C94 by Saudi Aramco approved calibration agency.
  3. Concrete delivered in trucks not having operable revolution counters shall be rejected.
  4. No aluminum parts shall be placed in contact with concrete during mixing or delivery.
  5. In remote areas, where, it is proven and verified by SAPMT and Inspection Department the absence of a batch plant that is in full compliance with this standard, existing batch plant will be allowed with the following conditions:
    a) The final product shall satisfy the requirements of this standard.
    b) Quality control shall be maintained at the batch plant and the construction site. Saudi Aramco Approved Independent laboratory shall be utilized to perform the required tests when there are no laboratory facilities at the batch plant.
    c) The batch plant shall be in full Compliance with section 9 of this standard.
  6. Re-tempering shall not be allowed.
  7. Truck-Mixing will be allowed for dry batching (where cement and aggregates are pre batched in a batch plant, water and liquid admixtures shall be added at site).
  8. Truck mixing is allowed if the discharge of the concrete can not be achieved
    within 90 minutes after introduction of the mixing water to the cement and aggregates or before the drum of the truck has revolved 300 revolutions, provided that:
    a) The discharge of the concrete shall be completed within three hours or before the drum of the truck has revolved 600 revolutions, whichever comes first after introduction of the cement to the aggregates.
    b) Each truck delivering concrete shall have an operable water system with an accurate water measuring device of one of the following types:
    • Automatic cut off siphon type.
    • Water meter of the automatic shut off type.
    • Sight gage.
    c) The final concrete shall satisfy the requirements of this standard.
    d) Consistency and uniformity tests are performed as per the requirements of ASTM C94. Tests shall be witnessed by representative from Inspection Department.
    e) Quality control is maintained at both batch plant and at project site.
    f) Inspection Department shall approve mixing procedure to ensure compliance with Saudi Aramco applicable standard.
  9. Concrete delivered at a temperature in excess of 32°C (90 F)or that fails to maintain a temperature of 32°C until used, shall be rejected and replaced at the expense of the Manufacturer.
    Non-structural concrete with compressive strength of 2000 psi is exempt from the above requirement. The reason for this exemption is due to the fact that non-structural concrete is unreinforced and thus cracking is not critical.
  10. The minimum required number of concrete test cylinders for strength tests shall be:
    Age (Days) No. of Cylinders
    3 1
    7 1
    28

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  1. The test report shall include the following data for each test sample of concrete taken at the placement site:
    • Name of Project and Job Order (JO) for the Project
    • Slump in millimeters
    • Ambient air temperature in ºC
    • Concrete temperature in ºC
    • % Air, when air entrainment is used.
  2. In-place testing will be conducted in accordance with ACI 318M, Section 5.6.4 and ACI 207.3R, Chapter 3, or ACI 318M, Chapter 20 at the sole option of the Purchaser.
    09-SAMSS-098
    Precast Concrete Fence Posts 26 March 2015
    09-SAMSS-106 27 March 2012
    Epoxy Coating of Steel Reinforcing Bars
    Document Responsibility: Paints and Coatings Standards Committee.
  3. American Society for Testing and Materials
    ASTM A775/A775M – 97 Standard Specification for Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing
    Steel Bars
  4. Saudi Arabian Standards Organization
    SASO SSA 2 Steel Bars for the Reinforcement of Concrete
  5. The Buyer’s Representative shall be the Responsible Unit Supervisor (RUS).
  6. The Vendor shall run gel time and moisture content tests for each batch of powder prior to use. A record shall be kept for at least 1 year of the test results in a form suitable to the Saudi Aramco Inspector.
  7. Blasting abrasives shall be steel shot, steel grit, or other commercial abrasives having less than 100 ppm sulfates and chlorides. The Vendor shall furnish chemical test analysis certificates for each batch of abrasive used.
  8. The use of reclaimed powder shall not exceed the manufacturer’s recommendations and in no case shall it be greater than 10% by weight without written approval from the RUS.
  9. The temperature of the steel reinforcing bars shall be at least 3°C above the dew point during abrasive blasting.
  10. FBE cure shall be tested by applying MEK to a clean, white cloth and lightly rubbing a small area of the coated bar. There shall be no evidence of color on the white cloth after rubbing for one minute.
    SAES-A-114 30 September 2014
    Excavation and Backfill
    Document Responsibility: Geotechnical Standards Committee
  1. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards
    SAES-A-100 Survey Coordinates, Datum’s and Data Formats
    SAES-A-113 Geotechnical Engineering Requirements
    SAES-L-450 Construction of on-Land and Near-Shore Pipelines
    SAES-L-460 Pipeline Crossings under Roads and Railroads
    SAES-Q-001 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete
    Structures
    SAES-Q-006 Asphalt and Sulfur Extended Asphalt Concrete Paving
    SAES-Q-007
    Foundations and Supporting Structures for Heavy Machinery
    SAES-P-104
    Wiring Methods and Materials
    SAES-S-070
    Installation of Utility Piping Systems
  2. Saudi Aramco General Instructions
    GI-1021.000 Street and Road Closure: Excavation, Reinstatement and Traffic Controls
  3. Saudi Aramco Safety Management Guide
    Guide No. 06-002-2008 Excavations and Shoring
  4. American Concrete Institute (ACI)
    ACI 229R Controlled Low-Strength Materials
  5. American Society for Testing and Materials
    ASTM C136 Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
    ASTM D422 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
    ASTM D1140 Standard Test Method for Amount of Material in Soils Finer than the No. 200 (75-um) Sieve
    ASTM D1556 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone Method
    ASTM D1557 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Compaction
    Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort 56,000 ft-lbf/ft³ (2,700 KN- M/M³)
    ASTM D2167 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Rubber Balloon Method
    ASTM D2487 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for
    Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D2937 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D4253 Standard Test Method for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D4254 Standard Test Method for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D4318 Standard Test Method for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils
    ASTM D5777 Standard Guide for Using the Seismic Refraction Method for Subsurface Investigation
    ASTM D6938 Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and
    Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D7380 Standard Test Method for Soil Compaction Determination at Shallow Depths Using 5-lb (2.3 kg) Dynamic Cone Penetrometer
    ASTM D7830/ Standard Test Method for In-Place Density
    D7830M (Unit Weight) and Water Content of Soil Using an Electromagnetic Soil Density Gauge
  6. Brackish Water: Water with Total Dissolved Solids of 10,000 ppm or more.
  7. Clean Sand: Soil meeting the following gradation containing less than 3% weight of organic material or clay:
    Sieve Size Percent Passing
    ¼ in (6.25 mm) 100
    No. 10 (2.00 mm) 90 – 100
    No. 200 (0.075 mm) 10 or less
  8. Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM): A flowable, self-compacting, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill in place of compacted fill.
  9. Dune Sand: Wind-deposited sand consisting of relatively single-sized particles generally passing the No. 16 sieve (1.18 mm) and usually containing less than 10% soil particles passing the No. 200 sieve (0.074 mm).
  10. Hard Rock: Rock that cannot be excavated using typical excavation equipment. General Fill Material: Inorganic soil or rock meeting the requirements.

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  1. Marl: is a wide variety of calcareous soil materials found in Saudi Arabia which may vary from clay to gravel sizes and often include cobble and boulder sized pieces.
  2. Rock: “Rock” may refer to anything from boulder-size individual pieces to hard, intact bedrock.
  3. Sabkha: is a saline (generally coastal) deposit generally consisting of saturated, loose silty sand and possibly clay.
  4. Select Fill Material: Gravel, sand, clay, or silt, or a mixture of these constituents meeting the requirements.
  5. Soft Rock: Weak and fractured rock formations that can be excavated using typical excavation equipment.
  6. Stable Rock: Natural solid mineral matter that can be excavated with vertical sides and remain intact while exposed. It is usually identified by a rock name such as limestone or sandstone.
  7. Compaction water shall be tested for Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride (Cl-) and Sulfate (SO4) contents according to SAES-Q-001.
  8. Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) mix design and 28-day compressive strength shall be submitted for approval prior to use on the site.
  9. Excavation Plan, including a Pre-Excavation checklist, as per the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual and Safety Management Guide 06002-2008 shall be submitted prior to beginning excavation. Consulting Services Department review of the Excavation Plan is required if excavation depth is greater than 6 m or if the Plan includes support or protection for existing structures, foundations or underground utilities.
  10. A geotechnical investigation as per SAES-A-113 is required for excavation depths greater than 6m.
    • Protection against sidewall cave-in. Shoring shall be installed or the sides shall be sloped or benched when any excavation or trench reaches a depth of 1.2 m or when soil banks are greater than 1.5 m.
  11. No excavation is permitted under existing foundations. Excavations are not allowed to intersect a 45 degree plane extending downward from the bottom edge of existing foundations unless an engineered support system, approved.
  12. Excavations adjacent to existing underground installations (e.g., piping,manholes, electrical and duct banks) or sidewalks shall use bracing and shoring to protect those installations during construction. In general, protection is required if the excavation will intersect a 45 degree plane extending downward from the bottom of the structure or utility to be protected.
  13. Structures that require passive soil pressure for stability (e.g., light poles or tower foundations) shall be properly braced whenever an excavation is within the passive pressure zone (generally a distance of 1.5 times the embedment depth of the foundation).
  14. Reinstatement of roads and pavements after trenching shall comply with SAES-Q-006 and GI-1021.000, Street and Road Closure: Excavation, Reinstatement and Traffic Controls.
    1. Soils shall be classified per ASTM D2487.
      General Fill Material:
      General Fill Material shall consist of gravel, sand and/or marl. The maximum size of the fill material shall be one-half the lift thickness or 75 mm (3 inches), whichever is less.
      Select Fill Material :
      Select Fill or ‘Structural Fill’ shall be composed only of inorganic material and shall have 100% passing the 5 cm (2 in) sieve and from 0 to 20% passing the No. 200 sieve.
  15. The portion of Select Fill material passing the No. 40 sieve shall have a maximum liquid limit of 35 and a maximum plasticity index of 12 per ASTM D4318. Liquid limit and plastic limit tests are not required for select fill material with less than 15% passing the No. 200 sieve.
  16. Clean sand and dune sand may be used as Fill or Select Fill Material. If sand is used as fill material.
  17. Cohesionless materials (sand or gravel) are recommended for Fill or Select Fill Material below the highest natural groundwater level.
  18. Controlled Low-Strength Material (CLSM)
    A. CLSM or “flowable fill” may be substituted for either Select Fill Material or general Fill Material, where approved by the Company Representative. CLSM is recommended where traditional compaction is difficult (i.e., narrow or congested excavation backfill). Unless otherwise specified, CLSM shall be in accordance with ACI 229R.
    B. The mix design shall be proportioned to produce a 28-day
    compressive strength between 0.7 and 1.4 MPa (100 and 200 psi),
    C. In general, CLSM with a compressive strength of 0.3 MPa (50 psi) or less can be excavated manually. Mechanical equipment, such as backhoes, are used for compressive strengths of 0.7 to 1.4 MPa (100 to 200 psi). Mixtures using high quantities of coarse aggregate can be difficult to remove by hand, even at low strengths. Mixtures using fine sand or only fly ash as the aggregate filler have been excavated with a backhoe up to strengths of 2.1 MPa (300 psi).
    CLSM shall be allowed to harden a minimum of 6 hours prior to proceeding with construction over the CSLM.
    Use of water with Total Dissolved Solids of 10,000 ppm or more (i.e., brackish water, seawater or water obtained from ground pits such as subkha water) is not allowed.
    A. There is no source of acceptable water available within 20 km.*
    B. The estimated volume of available acceptable water within 20 km could not sustain the requirement of the project or Program.*
    C. The fill or backfill will be below the surrounding area natural water table as determined by a geotechnical investigaton or monitoring wells.
  1. The site shall be proof-rolled and inspected for soft spots or loose zones. Proof roll may be defined as crossing the area with a heavy (minimum 10-ton weight) rubber-tire or steelwheel roller.
  2. Top 150 mm scarified and recompacted. The density of the top 150 mm in these areas shall not be less than 90% of the maximum Modified Proctor density (ASTM D1557) or 70% relative density (ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254) for cohesionless freely draining soil.
  3. Select Fill Material shall be specified Within 0.6 m of the bottom elevation of foundations, spread footings, slabs-on-grade and pavements when fill is required to achieve final grade.
  4. In no case shall compaction be allowed on slopes greater than 1 (V) to 5 (H).
  5. Select Fill Material shall be placed in lifts of 200 mm maximum in loose depth.
  6. General Fill Material shall be placed in lifts of 300 mm maximum in loose depth.
  7. General Fill Material and Select Fill Material shall be placed in lifts of 100mm maximum in loose depth for hand-operated compaction equipment.
  8. If clean sand or dune sand is used for fill, the compacted sand shall be kept wet until the next layer is placed.
  9. Sand that has been allowed to dry out will uncompact under vehicle or pedestrian traffic. Continuous watering is required to maintain compaction until the next lift is in-place.
  10. The moisture content of the material being compacted shall be within 3%, plus or minus, of the optimum moisture content as determined by ASTM D1557. (COHESIVE SOIL)
  1. For cohesionless freely draining soils when ASTM D4253/ ASTM D4254 are the appropriate test procedures, there is no applicable optimum moisture content.
    1. Fill and backfill adjacent to structures such as retaining walls, pits, and basements shall not be compacted with heavy equipment, but shall be compacted with hand-operated equipment to a distance of 1.2 meters or greater beyond the sides of the structures.
  2. Water flooding with positive drainage may be the most effective compaction technique for poorly graded and singlesize sands, as these sands are difficult to compact with mechanical compactors.
    1. All Select Fill Material and any fill beneath and/or adjacent to foundations, grade beams, mats, buildings, lined slopes or drainage channels, and process areas:
  3. At least 90% of the maximum Modified Proctor density as determined by ASTM D1557, or At least 70% Relative Density as determined by ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254 for cohesionless granular soils that do not exhibit well-defined moisture density relationship.
  4. Select Fill Material beneath and/or adjacent to foundations with static loads over 320 kPa and foundations for vibrating or heavy machinery:
    A. At least 95% of the maximum Modified Proctor density as determined by ASTM D1557, or
    B. At least 85% Relative Density as determined by ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254 for cohesionles granular soils that do not exhibit well-defined moisture density relationship.
  5. Asphalt and concrete pavement subgrades:
  6. At least 95% of the maximum Modified Proctor density as determined by ASTM D1557, or
  7. At least 85% Relative Density as determined by ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254 for cohesionless granular soils that do not exhibit well-defined moisture density relationship.
  8. General Fill Material for areas not designated as open or landscaped:
  9. At least 90% of the maximum Modified Proctor density as determined by ASTM D1557, or
  10. At least 70% Relative Density as determined by ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254 for cohesionless
    granular soils that do not exhibit well-defined moisture density relationship.
  1. General Fill Material for areas designated as open or landscaped:
  2. At least 85% of the maximum Modified Proctor density as determined by ASTM D1557, or
  3. At least 65% Relative Density as determined by ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254 for cohesionless
    granular soils that do not exhibit well-defined moisture density relationship.
  4. A 500 mm thick layer of fill material placed directly on the subkha compacted as well as. A geotextile layer between the subkha and the working platform provides a capillary break and improves both short-term (construction) and long-term performance of the engineered fill.
  5. Required tests for cohesive soils:
    1 Sieve analysis (ASTM C136, ASTM D422 or
    ASTM D1140)
    1 Plasticity Index determination (ASTM D4318)
    1 Modified Proctor Test (ASTM D1557) with corresponding Proctor curve.
  6. Required tests for cohesionless soils:
    1 Sieve analysis (ASTM C136, ASTM D422 or
    ASTM D1140)
    1 Relative Density determination (ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254).
  7. Laboratory Control Test Frequency
    A. Shall be conducted at a minimum for every 10,000 m3 where the fill material is uniform or for every change of source or material type.
    B. Stockpile from multiple sources, the tests in section 6.4.1.1 shall be conducted at a minimum for every 5,000 m3 using a combined sample of four random samples of the fill material.
  1. Field Control Tests
    In-place density and moisture content of soils shall be determined by the following methods:
  1. Sand-cone method in accordance with ASTM D1556.
  2. Nuclear method in accordance with ASTM D2922 • Rubber balloon method in accordance with ASTM D2167 .
  3. Drive-cylinder method in accordance with ASTM D2937. The drive-cylinder method per ASTM D2937 may only be used if the compacted layer is only 15 cm or less.
    Note: Other methods for in-place density of compacted fills, such as
    Electromagnetic Soil Density Gauge (ASTM D7830/ D7830M) or Dynamic Cone Penetration (ASTM D7380), may be approved by the Saudi Aramco Inspection Representative based on a field test.

135. Testing shall be performed at the following frequencies:

  1. Select Fill Material under all foundations, buildings and process areas – one test every 100 m² of each lift.
  2. Select Fill Material under roadways, railroads, area pavement and parking areas, and lined slopes or drainage channels – one test every 200 m² of each lift.
  3. General Fill Material – one test every 500 m² of each lift.
  4. Backfill of trenches – one test for every 15 linear meter of each lift.

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  1. Excavation
    A. General Excavation :
    General excavation shall be performed after clearing and stripped of organic material, trash, or other unsuitable material.
    B. Structural Excavation :
    Structural excavation shall include excavations for footings, grade beams, pits,
    basements, retaining walls, man holes, catch basins, pipeline thrust anchors, etc.
    When soft or compressible soil is encountered at footing grades as shown on the drawings, such soil shall be removed and replaced with compacted Select Fill as specified in Sections , CLSM, or lean (1000 psi minimum 28-day compressive strength) concrete.
    C. Earthen Structures
    Earthen structures include permanent work items such as ponds, canals, ditches, etc. Excavation for such work shall be made to the lines, grades, and cross sections.
  1. Trenching
    Trenching for pipelines and underground utilities shall conform to SAES-L-450, SAES-L-460, or SAES-S-070 as appropriate.
    Normal Excavation Excavation that can be accomplished using rippers (mass grading) and/or excavators/backhoes (linear and isolated small excavations,) operated in accordance with good construction practice. Normal excavation includes all soils and also includes soft, weathered and/or fractured rock.
    Rock Excavation Excavation that cannot be accomplished using rippers and/or excavators/backhoes and which requires blasting or pneumatic rock breakers to facilitate excavation.
    Small/linear Isolated small excavations and linear excavations (trenches, road cuts) where limitations to ripping are present, verified by the Company Representative. Such limitations may include ripping direction and/or travel distance.
    Mass grading Large, open area excavation where no limitations to ripping are present.
  1. Summary of Fill Placement and Compaction Requirements
    Area/Region Compaction Requirement Comments
    Site preparation of areas to receive fill, pavement or loads.
    The density of the top 150 mm in these areas shall not be less than:
    90% of the maximum Modified Proctor density
    (ASTM D1557)
    or
    70% relative density (ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254) for cohesionless free draining soil
    Site preparation
    • Areas shall be free of organic material, trash or other unsuitable material.
    • Proper drainage so that the site is free of standing water all the time.
    • In-situ soil proof rolled and inspected for soft spots or loose zones. Proof roll may be defined as crossing the area with a heavy (minimum 10-ton weight) rubber-tire or steel-wheel roller.
    • All observed soft spots or loose zones shall be compacted in-place or excavated to firm soil and replaced with properly compacted fill.
    • Top 6 inches (150 mm) scarified and recompacted.
    All Select Fill Material or any fill beneath and/or adjacent to grade beams, mats, buildings, lined slopes or drainage channels, and process areas.
    Compacted to at least:
    90% of the maximum Modified Proctor density
    (ASTM D1557)
    or
    70% Relative Density (ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254) for cohesionless granular soils that do not exhibit well-defined moisture density relationship.
    Fill material shall be placed in uniform loose lifts not exceeding the following criteria, provided that the specified compaction is achieved for the full depth.
    • Select Fill Material shall be placed in lifts of 200 mm maximum in loose depth.
    • General Fill Material shall be placed in lifts of 300 mm maximum in loose depth.
    • General Fill Material and Select Fill Material shall be placed in lifts of 100 mm maximum
    Select Fill Material beneath and/or adjacent to foundations with static loads over 320 kPa and foundations for vibrating or heavy machinery.
    Asphalt and concrete pavement subgrades (roads & parking areas).
    Compacted to at least:
    95% of the maximum Modified Proctor density (ASTM D1557).
    or
    85% relative density (ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254) for cohesionless granular soils that do not exhibit well-defined moisture density relationship.
    in loose depth for hand-operated compaction equipment.
    • Other lift thicknesses may be approved by the appropriate Saudi Aramco Inspection Representative based on a field test section using the intended compaction equipment. (Impact rollers can compact soils in lifts exceeding 1 m).
    General Fill Material not designated as open or landscaped.
    Compacted to at least:
    90% of the maximum Modified Proctor density
    (ASTM D1557)
    or
    70% Relative Density (ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254) for cohesionless granular soils that do not exhibit well-defined moisture density relationship.
    Area/Region Compaction Requirement Comments
    General Fill Material for areas designated as open or landscaped.
    Compacted to at least:
    85% of the maximum Modified Proctor density
    (ASTM D1557)
    or

65% Relative Density (ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254) for cohesionless granular soils that do not exhibit well-defined moisture density relationship.
Topsoil identified as “for
planting purposes.”
Exempted from compaction requirements.
Working platforms for compaction on subkha deposits.
A 500 mm thick layer of fill material placed directly on the subkha compacted as well as possible is usually sufficient. Stripping of the subkha “crust” prior to fill placement is not recommended. A geotextile layer between the subkha and the working platform provides a capillary break and improves both short-term (construction) and long-term performance of the engineered fill.
Compaction testing of working platforms is not required.
Working platforms for compaction on subkha deposits shall be compacted as necessary to achieve a stable base. Subkha working platforms must be indicated as such and accounted for in the design.
Compaction to the required densities indicated in Section 6.3 are virtually impossible to achieve in the first layer placed directly on subkha and similar very weak soils. A working platform to provide a stable base is often required.
Pavement Reconstruction after
Trenching
Reinstatement of roads and pavements after trenching shall comply with shall comply with SAES-Q-006 and GI-1021.000.
Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM), a flowable, self-compacting fill, is recommended for backfill of trenches crossing roads and pavements.

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